Monday, February 24, 2020
KONE PLC Strategic Plan including digital marketing strategy - Essay Example An analysis of its market approaches shows that the firm has had its presence in Europe since its establishment. Additionally, the company has not used its capital accumulation to enhance its growth in other markets, unlike other firms that have targeted infant elevator markets. An analysis of its product and services shows that the company has provided dedicated its production line in people flow. Most of its products include automatic doors, auto walks, elevators, escalators, and access control systems. Its branding strategies have increased its target markets ensuring an increase in sales and capital accumulation. It also targets the service industry that has been rated as one of the fast growing markets globally. The diversity of products also assists in its competition strategies leading to its high ratings in the top global firms list. An increase in its main markets requires that the firm should adopt services such as digital marketing to ensure all customers in the markets (Asia, Europe, and the U.S) are covered without any delays. KONE GBÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement is based on the safety of customers. Its dedication to people flow is the driving force for its production and product quality. The firm ensures that its products have undergone safety tests since they directly deal with the people. Ensuring maximum security and a smooth flow of people with flexibility and scalability is a mission statement that governs the employees in their production process. As a result, its products have been rated safest compared to its competitors. It has also incorporated advanced technology in its products to reduce the risks of breakdowns. In the values statement, the firm has engaged in class that is required in the service industry. For example, it has made attractive elevators and escalators that can be used in luxurious hotels and malls. They ensure that customers can customize their product; hence, acting as a strategy to increase its market
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Legal Issues Budgets and Administration - Essay Example 2.) The Fair Labor Standards Act is a federal law which guaranteed worker's right to minimum standards laws. It has defined the 40-hour workweek, set out federal minimum wage, stated the requirements for overtime and placed restrictions on child labor. Hence, the major provisions of the Act are: a.) 29 U.S.C. Section 206 governing employees' minimum wage; b.) 29 U.S.C. Section 207 for number of hours of work; and c.) 29 U.S.C. Section 203 (1) in relation to 29 U.S.C. Section 212 pertaining to child labor. 3.) The Equal Pay Act of 1963 sought to abolish wage differentials based on sex. When the bill was passed, sex discrimination was denounced so that its key components are the following: a.) wages and living standards for employees necessary for their health and efficiency; b.) prevention of the maximum utilization of the available labor resources; c.) tendency to cause labor conflicts, which may impose burden, affect, and obstruct commerce; d.) burdening commerce and the free flow of goods in commerce; and e.) resulting to an unfair means of competition. 4.) Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 simply prohibits discrimination in employment when based on national origin, sex, religion, color, and race. Title VII not only specifically identified specific acts which would constitute violation but provided for recovery of compensatory and punitive damages. In seeking for damages, it conferred jurisdiction upon courts to give injunctive relief in cases of discrimination in public offices and gave authority to the Attorney General institute suits to promote civil rights. 5.) The determination of pay discrimination for dissimilar jobs has become difficult. The usual query is what would be the basis or bases of discrimination when in fact an employee has different qualifications or simply into a dissimilar job from the rest. The fact that employees may have different jobs aside from their personal qualifications may become an issue of discrimination itself. In other words, should discrimination be prohibited when circumstances call for discrimination because of varying qualifications 6.) Not only that discrimination has created trauma in the society, it also created various social implications like earning gaps among sexes and/or races in workplaces. The society has been divided into thinking that women usually are limited as to what they could accomplish as opposed to men. The same is true of men and women of different racial origins perceived to be underachievers, of low intelligence and unproductive. 7.) Social Security is a very extensive government program to the point that people does not know how the program works or how it is financed. People have vague of the fact that they pay taxes to benefit them in the long run and that their benefits are connected to their income. This lack of awareness makes the people hesitant of the real benefits the people will have to receive by the time they needed social security benefits at the time of retirement. 8.) The management system affects the pay objectives in a manner that collection process may be affected due to varying or erratic management policies. 9.) The importance of controlling labor costs is that it gives the employer the idea and awareness of business expense which must match its projected growth and reserve capital. With such control, spending may go beyond the actual
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Compare and contrast two views of how social order Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Whoever controls the media controls the mindÃ¢â¬ (Jim Morrison 1943-1971).excellent quote i had forgotten that one To establish a view on how social order is produced, in this essay the main focus will be on two researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments both on social disorder specifically in regard to the influence of the mass media. Sociologist Stanley Cohen (1973) suggests that the media depiction of antisocial behaviour helps to construct what he labels Ã¢â¬Ëfolk devilsÃ¢â¬â¢. Whilst social scientists Stuart Hall et al (1978) argued that the mediation of disorderly behaviour led to the belief that society was in a Ã¢â¬ËcrisisÃ¢â¬â¢. By using my own examples and illustrations I will compare and contrast these two theories and furthermore for differentiation include a more present-day theory on social disorder through Huesmann et al 2003. Thereby through an examination of mediation (media spin) on disorderly behaviour attempt to define how one part of social order is produced in public spaces. Good clear introduction Sociologist Stanley CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on Ã¢â¬Ëfolk devilsÃ¢â¬â¢ which he first observed during the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s media portrayal of Mods and Rockers (Making Social lives ,p378) gives an interesting oblique view on how social order is maintained, as according to is theory certain members of the public are classified as outsiders and treat like scapegoats. describe the theory a little bit here The evidence for this can be found as far back as ancient Greece AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëunruly youthsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Brake, 1980, p.1) Along with Ã¢â¬Å"fears of skilled pickpockets progressing to become burglars in the sixteenth centuryÃ¢â¬ (Shore, 2000, p. 21) and as near to our times is the example of Gypsy travellers who are and have been given the dubious pleasure of being one of the Ã¢â¬Å"carriersÃ¢â¬ of social evil and disorder of our days. Good use of examples This Sun headline (March 2005) on the right is just one of the many stereotypical images of gy psies, blown out of all proportion by mass media mediation and an example of that which is coined by Cohen as generating moral panic that is irrational and creates a situation Ã¢â¬Å"where people are both terrified and outragedÃ¢â¬ (Cohen, Making Social lives,p378). This use of inflammatory rhetoric with regards to gypsies is still being currently employed today as a Sun reporter reports he Ã¢â¬Å"found a communityÃ brimming with fear and anger and villagers hell-bent on getting rid of them (Sun May 2011). These headlines from the mass media (public space) with regard to gypsies whom historically have many times been the focal point of European societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ills and represented asÃ¢â¬â¢ folk devilsÃ¢â¬â¢ very good The media campaigns of hostility against these Ã¢â¬Ëfolk devilsÃ¢â¬â¢ have not only produced moral panic Ã¢â¬Å"a pattern of behaviour, group of people or a condition becomes defined as a threat to society, its values and its interestsÃ¢â¬ (Making Social lives, p371). This on-going mass media campaign against gypsies resulted in change the nations politics and laws to re-address social order. Such, as under sections 77-80 of the 1994 Act, [local authorities may direct persons who are unlawfully residing in vehicles on land in their own area to leave.] This an attempt to renew social order with regards to gypsies and thus allaying public fear.very good The media also played a significant role in sociologists Stuart HallÃ¢â¬â¢s and co-authors (Policing the Crisis (1978) theory. Hall believed that the issue of crime was instrumental in controlling society and that the media constructions Ã¢â¬Å"contributed to a widespread belief that there was a crisis in societyÃ¢â¬ (Making (Social lives, p378). As an illustration of some of the biased press coverage of street crime is a picture portrayed by this Sun image (Dec 2010) Hall surmises that this is how the media wishes to portray these issues to the public, as a rise in crime and disorder which can and should be treat by the government with greater policing measures and laws, which Hall terms the beginning of a Ã¢â¬Å"Law and Order SocietyÃ¢â¬ (Social lives, p378). He goes on to infer that media spin is used to distort and divert public attention from the clear problems of social injustice and inequality and that this aids government on social order policies. Evidence for this Law and Order society can be found with the introduction of the SUS (Stop and Search) powers that were used at their height when 1000 youths were stopped and searched in 5 days in what the police called Operation Swamp(bbc. Home, 25th Nov. 1981).well researched This resulted in the escalation of confrontation between the community and the police due to the locals perceiving an inequality and persecution of young blacks and this sparked off the Brixton race riots (1981). The outcome culminated in the renewal of social order with the abolition of the SUS law (1981). However they returned in another form due to 9/11 and 7/7 attacks to combat terrorism in 2007. ToÃ compare and contrast Cohen and Halls views on mass media mediation and how the social order is maintained thro ugh public spaces it will be shown by examining that they have differences and similarities. Where both Cohen and Hall agree with regard to their theories on the issue of mediation (public spaces) is that they both believe that the focus of the mass media places spin on how social and criminal deviants (muggers) are portrayed. Also they both rely on labels to support their social disorder theories i.e. folk devil and muggers and furthermore characterising them as stereotypes. Moreover they continue to agree that the media exaggerates and amplifies and createÃ¢â¬â¢ scapegoatsÃ¢â¬â¢ whose behaviours good example of compare and contrast are demonised with resulting effect on social order of creating Ã¢â¬Ëmoral panicÃ¢â¬â¢ on the one hand and a sense of Ã¢â¬Ëcrisis in societyÃ¢â¬â¢ on the other. Where they greatly disagree is on the root causes of moral panics and social crisis in that Cohen with very little supporting evidence, believed cultural anxiety was to blame (Making Social Lives, Table 1, p383,). Whilst Hall thought that the blame led elsewhere with his inference to social inequality and racism and that the media served the state in diverting attention away from these genuine social problems (ibid).good In contrast to both Cohen and Halls views on the mediation of social disorder and the foundation of their theories on moral panic and society in crisis there is a view that has an alternative reason as to why and how the media can play a significant role in shaping social order in public spaces. This alternative view comes from the analysis of a longitudinal study (Making Social Lives, p381) by Huesmann et al on media effects, and in particularly how Huesmann and his team found a correlation between 557 children and the watching of violence on TV and a subsequent increase in propensity for aggressive behaviour in 398 of these same studied people. Therefore Huesmann et al. (2003) reached the conclusion on disorderly behaviour that there is a direct effect of media portrayal of violence. From this you can argue that in HuesmannÃ¢â¬â¢s view, media and mediation through public space in this case TV. can have a major negative role in the shaping of social order in society, by desensitising and normalising disorderly behaviour. Although there is no real causation evidence for these claims in HuesmannÃ¢â¬â¢s study and that the conclusion drawn on the media impact of television violence a chimera of other social factors very good expand on this a little. Thereby throughÃ the examination of Cohen/Halls theories on mediation (media spin) on disorderly behaviour the following can be gleaned with regard to how one part of social order is produced in public spaces. Established norms of behaviour are created and exist in society supported by mass media and this sometimes leads to an increase in social pressure which is built up with a resulting increase in policing and law legislation (SUS laws). These societal norms are reinforced by media scapegoating of social and criminal deviants, CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëfolk devilsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Halls Ã¢â¬ËmuggersÃ¢â¬â¢. Although there are others (Huesmann et al) who believe that the shaping of social order in society is more directly influenced by TV violence alone. The methodology utilised in this essay was to shed light on the making of social order in public spaces through looking at two main theories on disorderly behaviour. And it has highlighted in my view that quite possibly genuine social problems and solutions are obscured by mediation resulting in legislation that deals with only the symptoms not the causes Ã¢â¬Å"The medias the most powerful entity on earth. They have the power to make the innocent guilty and to make the guilty innocent, and thats power, because they control the minds of the massesÃ¢â¬ (Malcolm X (1925-1965). Bibliography Cohen, S. (1973) Folk Devils and Moral Panics, London, Paladin. Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J. and Roberts, B. (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State, and Law and Order, London and Basingstoke, Macmillan. Huesmann, R., Moise-Titus, J., Pdolski, C-L. And Eron, L. (2003) Ã¢â¬ËLongitudinal relations between childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behaviour in young adulthood: 1977Ã¢â¬â1992Ã¢â¬â¢, Developmental Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 201Ã¢â¬â23. Google Image, News.bbc.co.uk, accessed 24th /26th May 2011 Google Image, Enemiesofreason.co.uk accessed 25th May 2011 Jim Morrison (1943 Ã¢â¬â July 3, 1971) brainyquote.com accessed 20th may 2011 Malcolm X (1925-1965) thinkexist.com accessed 20th may 2011 Shore, H. (2000) Ã¢â¬ËThe idea of juvenile crime in 19th-century EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢, History Today, vol. 50, no.6,pp. 21Ã¢â¬â7;
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
This article by Shakoor et. al, (2011) is a longitudinal study of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying. Theory of mind (ToM) is a prediction of everyday behaviors based on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mental state. Understanding of false beliefs is a Core ToM, which has usually developed by age 4. By age 7 more advanced skills develop including embedded mental states (Ã¢â¬Ëwhat he thinks what she thinksÃ¢â¬â¢) and understanding that emotions can influence other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. Developing these skills are important for shaping healthy social interactions and can be important with decoding social cues as well as being able to adjust behaviors. Therefore, those that are delayed in developing ToM could be exposed to social interactions that are negative; because of this they may find it difficult to establish good relationships during their life (Shakoor et al., 2011, p. 254). The major research of this study was whether or not children who were involved in bullying during adolescence had poor ToM in childhood. The theory being tested was that poor childhood ToM can cause bullying during early adolescence. Bullying effects on average 27% of adolescents and children every year. This is a negative social experience that happens worldwide. Children who do not have good ToM are at a greater risk to become involved in bullying situations. This is because ToM skills support social interactions. Children with poor ToM do not have a good understanding of the emotions and intentions of other people. This puts at risk the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to perceive social signals that reveal nonreciprocal interactions, which puts the child at risk of being subjugated or victimized. Poor ToM can also affect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to be able to stand up for th... ...ying, they just took the word of the teachers and the mother. Also if the children hang out with kids at school who are bullies that would influence them to be bullies as well regardless of ToM. I found that the conclusion of the article made sense based on the data of the study. The conclusion stated what should be done to help prevent bullying and listed some training strategies to help improve childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ToM. The authors named all the limitations that I can think of. The main one being that the study does not generalize to all children because the data only came from twins. For future research studies they can compare the data collected from the twins with data collected from children who are not twins. Also they can collect data on what type of bullying was taking place with each child whether it was relational or physical (Shakoor et al., 2011, p. 259 & 260).
Monday, January 13, 2020
Distinguish between positive and negative corporate politics and explain how these can influence employment engagement. The essay will seek to distinguish between positive and negative corporate politics. The writer will start by defining corporate politics in trying to have an understanding of corporate politics and how it influence employee engagement Kakabadse (1983) cited by Armstrong defines politics as Ã¢â¬Ëa process, that of influencing individuals and groups of people to your point of view, where you cannot rely on authorityÃ¢â¬â¢. Organizations consist of individuals who, while they are ostensibly there to achieve a common purpose, are, at the same time, driven by their own needs to achieve their own goals (Armstrong, 2009). There is significant difference between corporate politics and negative corporate politics. This can seen from the effect the two have on employee engagement and the purpose of the individual that is to say positive corporate politics is done as tool mainly by management and supervisors to try and influence other staff so as to meet organisational goals. Positive corporate politics is normal done to the benefit of the organisation as a whole. On the other hand negative corporate politics is self fulfilling Ã¢â¬â it is aimed achieving self interests and in most cases it is against organisational goals Positive corporate politics include the process of influencing individual endeavour and ambition to the common good. Some individuals genuinely believe that using political means to achieve their goals will benefit the organization as well as themselves. Positive corporate politics can thus illustrated in the following case; Mrs Takuta is the Personnel at ZTRD Development Bank and is deputised by Taurai who she went to the same University and the two were in the same class. Taurai was more intelligent than his supervisor and because of the relation between the two, Mrs Takuta always find it difficult to give Taurai orders and in extreme situations taurai will challenge his boss. In the quest to have work done through her junior, Mrs T akuta will use the following statement Ã¢â¬Å"the HR Manager wants the report done by the end of the dayÃ¢â¬ . Mrs Takuta would use the HR ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s authority to influence Taurai to perform his duties. To the same effect, Positive corporate politics can increase efficiency, form interpersonal relationships, expedite change, and profit the organization and its members simultaneously. This can be achieved if those in power are able to use their power to influence members of staff to this effect. ThusÃ positive corporate politics would also include the different powers vested in them to influence positive employee engagement and increase in productivity. Management can give their employees the power to make decisions about their jobs Ã¢â¬â flexible autonomy, reward for good performance among others. Positive corporate politics involves action by individuals or groups to acquire develop and use power and other resources in order to obtain preferred outcomes (Hellriegel, Slocum and Woodman, 1995) Armstrong (2009) defines power as the capacity to secure the dominance of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goa ls or value over others. Individuals and managers can thus influence directly and indirectly using the various types of powers. French and Raven (1959) cited by Armstrong identified the four different types of powers that can be used to influence other employees and the power are; reward power, coercive power, expert power and legitimate power. Reward power is when individuals and managers use the reward power to influence or obtain compliance from subordinates by promising or granting rewards that includes salary increase, bonuses or even promotions. It is the management who normal use this power positively to achieve company goals. Coercive power is used to obtain compliance through threats of punishment and actual punishment. For example promising to fire an employee if they use company vehicles for personal use. The ability to influence others with the power anchored in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s formal position of authority thus the legitimate power. Individuals can use their legitimate positions of authority to get things done through others. Legitimate power focuses constructively on job performance. Expert power is when individuals have influence because of the valueable information or knowledge they posses. The supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s power is enhanced because they know about work schedules and assignments before their subordinates. Corporate politics involves struggles between social entities for resources, personal conflict and a variety of influence tactics executed by individuals and groups to obtain benefits and goals in different ways (Molm 1997) cited by Vigoda, (2000). MolmÃ¢â¬â¢s view of corporate politics would to a greater extent reflect negative corporate politics. Ferris, Russ, and Fundt, (1989) cited by Vigoda (2000) defines negative corporate politics as behaviour strategically designed to maximise self interests. Corporate politics can contradict the collective organisational goals or the interests of other people. Medison etal 1980) cited by Vigoda, (2000) observed that whenÃ individuals were asked to describe work place politics they would list self serving and manipulative activities. It can then be understood that negative corporate benefits individuals at the expense of the entire organisation or a work unit. The behaviour is thus associated with manipulation, defamation, subversiveness and illegitimate use of power to attain oneÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. Corporate politics can then lead to job anxiety, decrease job satisfaction, and withdrawal from the organisation. Dorory (1993) cited by Vigoda, (2000) found that corporate politics has a potential demaging effect especially on lower status employees. He speculated that employees who lacked a stable power base and effective means of influencing perceived organisational politics as a source of frastiration and react by showing negative attitude towards the organisation. Employees can feel isolated and unhappy if they are not part of a cohesive team or if they are bedevilled by disruptive power politics. In conclusion, one can therefore generalise that positive corporate politics reinforces employee engagement. Employees tend to put more effort either because they expect a reward or have been promised reward for such performance. That is to say employees can be influenced by the reward power. Employees work hard or do not do unwanted behaviours to avoid punishment. in most cases, employees will also give respect to those in authority thus the legitimate power. However, on the other hand, employee will not perform as expected thats negative engagement which can be caused by negative corporate politics. Using case studies, discuss how people within an organisation can use political tactics to survive the corporate political jungle? Individuals within an organisation which can be likened to a political jungle act out roles in efforts to establish identities they wish to convey, and which can result in personal gain. It should also be noted that people alter the image they choose to present, and the strategy used to present this image, based on the situation they are in and the outcomes they hope to achieve that is how they intend to survive (Chad etal 2003). To this effect, it is important to note that individuals do not necessarily use the same tactic in every situation. Likewise, different individuals may choose different tactics when faced with similar situations. For example, whereas one individual may use self-promotion to obtain a job offer, that same individual may useÃ ingratiation or rationality in an attempt to obtain a promotion or pay raise. On the other hand, another individual, when faced with the same situation, may use ingratiation to obtain a job offer and assertiveness or self-promotion to win a pay raise. Different individuals may use a number of contextual factors which influence tactics an individual chooses to use, under what circumstances he or she chooses to use them, and how effective the tactic of choice will be. Such factors include the relative power of the parties, the direction of the influence attempt, the objective of the influence attempt, and the political skill of the influencer (Falbe & Yukl, 1992; Ferris, Perrewe, Anthony, & Gilmore, 2000) cited by Chad etal (2003). Buelens etal (2011) also subscribe to the same tactics as identified by Appelbaum and Brent (1998). He pointed out that individuals would use different tactics to get influence within an organisation or rather to get favours and promotions from their bosses. It is however believed that political behaviour is far less common and less intense among employees in lower-level positions than among employees in higher-level positions. There are a variety of political tactics used by employees at almost every organizational level that include forming coalitions and networks, impression management, information management, pursue line responsibility , ingratiation , rational persuasion, consultation and exchange Appelbaum and Brent (1998) . Forming coalitions and networks best known as networking, is a political tactic which consists of befriending important people. These people may not be in positions of any obvious political value but their jobs may provide them with information that could be useful to have. Some people Ã¯ ¬ nd that forming friendships with people in upper-level management can help them gain access to important information (Appelbaum and Brent (1998). The above can be illustrated in the following case: Zikanda was a messenger a t RIT Energy. Despite the fact that Zikanda was just a messenger, other senior employees would always give him respect and at most times conform to his needs and favours. For many years in the same organisation, I never realised why even middle level managers would actually conform to unreasonable demands of a mere messenger. Zikanda would take the pool car home as and when he feel like and no one would question that and worse of other senior employee would commute or even ask for transport from him. I later realised that his power or influence was because of his relationship with the GeneralÃ Manager. Zikanda was no relative with the boss but has managed to form a network with the General Manager they were friends. Zikanda every lunch time would go to the General ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s office ask him what he want for lunch. It was ZikandaÃ¢â¬â¢s job to be sent to buy him lunch however it was the way the whole thing was done, he would at times buy him lunch with his own monies. The General Manager and Zikanda were just friends they were just too close. Other employees were not comfortable with this relation there were not sure what information the two buddies share. Zikanda has managed to make a network with the General Manager. Impression management is a simple tactic that most people uses from time to time is the management of their outward appearance and style in the quest of trying to impress those in authority. Generally, most organizations prefer a particular image that consists of being loyal, attentive, honest, neatly groomed and sociable. By deliberately trying to exhibit this preferred image, an individual can make a positive impression on inÃ¯ ¬âuential members of the organization. As illustrated in the case of Transport officer who has turned himself to driver. Nhetuka is a transport officer at ZBM Company. Mr Nhetuka has turned himself into a driver in trying to impress management. Nhetuka is always driving managers when he is supposed to delegate drivers to drive managers around. Not only that he takes the Area ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s son to and from school a job which is supposed to be done by company driver. Information management is a tactic consisting of managing the information that is shared with others. The nature, as well as the timing, of information given out can have strong effects on othersÃ¢â¬â¢ conduct (Appelbaum and Brent (1998). People who play the information management game are not likely to lie or spread misinformation, but they rely on the carefully planned release of valid information to obtain their ends (Vecchio and Appelbaum, 1995, p. 323) cited by Appelbaum and Brent (1998). An example can be given of a personnel Clerk who by virtue of his job has access to very important information to include how people can get access to loans among others. The person having such a position can sort respect and influence to the extent that he is able to make people lower themselves to get that information. In a political jungle despite the fact that this information should be given to all employees, one can choose to with hold the information for his own benefit. Pursuing core business within an organization, some positions are more closely tied to the primaryÃ mission of the organization thus the line positions. They are at the very heart of the organization. While staff people may come to wield great power within their own territories, it is the people who do core business who usually Ã¢â¬Å"call the shotsÃ¢â¬ on major issues. Core staff not only makes the more important decisions within the organization, they are also more likely to be promoted to top-level exe cutive positions. In many organizations, there is a preferred department of origin and career path for top- level managers. Therefore, one way to gain inÃ¯ ¬âuence within an organization is to be assigned to a core position. It will often provide more visibility, inÃ¯ ¬âuence, and upward mobility. A case to support the effect of core position for influence in the in an organisation; Takunda was an administration clerk ZETDC an organisation whose core business is to transmit and distribute electricity. He worked very hard for ten years furthering his qualification hoping that one day he will be promoted and be given a higher grade but nothing cane his way. ZETDC would on get people with 5 Ã¢â¬ËOÃ¢â¬â¢ Level train them as electricians and give them good grades despite that they only posses a Certificate in Electrical power engineering. Takunda then decided to change the career and started a programme at the Polytechnic were he attained a Certificate in Electrical Power Engineering. And it was only then Takunda was recognised and promoted. Ã¢â¬ËIngratiation tactic involves giving compliments or doing favours for superiors or co-workers. Most people have a difficult time rejecting the positive advances of others. Ingratiation usually works as a tactic insofar as the target often feels positive toward the source even if the ingratiation attempt is fairly blatant and transparent. In the behavioural sciences, the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"social reciprocityÃ¢â¬ has been offered to help explain the process of ingratiation. In social reciprocity, there is a feeling of a social obligation to repay the positive actions of others with similar actionsÃ¢â¬â¢ Appelbaum and Brent (1998). Appelbaum and Brent, (1998) defines ingratiation as an attempt by individuals to increase their attractiveness in the eyes of others. Ingratiation tends to be used more as an upward inÃ¯ ¬âuence process than as a downward inÃ¯ ¬âuence process. This tactic can best be observed when especial when one has a female boss how often do we pass complements to our female bosses, Ã¢â¬Å"nice hair styleÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"nice dressÃ¢â¬ even if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it. It is a political game most of us play to survive hash judgement from our bosses. In case of a Human resources clerk whoÃ was left acting as Human Resources Officer. During the absence of his boss, Sipiwe was supposed to employ a Customer Care Clerk on a contract basis. Sipiwe knew that his bossÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter was unemployed and Sipiwe took this opportunity to employee the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter without even consulting the boss. It was later discovered that Sipiwe did this because she had a boyfriend who was out of employment. Sipiwe calculated and realised that it would be easy for her to convince the boss to employ her boyfriend since she has employed the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. In a game of politics one has to be clever and calculative and be able to use politic al tactics to your best advantage. The case above illustrates a tactic called exchange. REFERENCE LIST Appelbaum, S..H. and Hughes, B. (1998) Ingratiation as a political tactic: Effects within the organisation; Journal of Management Decision Vol 36/2 Armstrong, M. (2009) ArmstrongÃ¢â¬â¢s handbook of human resources management Practice; London, Kogan Pages. Buelens, M. etal (2011) Organisational Behaviour; Berkshire,McGrall- Hill Chad, A. etal (2003) Influence tactics and work outcomes; Journal of Organisational Behaviour Vol 24 No 1. Hellriegal, D. , Slocum, W. J. Jr. and Woodman, R. W. (1995), Organisational Behaviour;New York, West Publishing Company. Vigoda, E. (2000), Organisational Politics, Job attitudes and work outcomes: Exploration and implications for the Public Sector, Journal of Vocational Behaviour Vol 57. MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY FACULT OF SOCIAL SCIENCES BSC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT HONOURS DEGRE ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR [HRM 202] Assignment Cover Page Surname : NcubeName: Innocent Taurai Reg. Number: R135973GMode of Entry: VISITING Level 2.1 Lecturer: Mrs. Masitara Topic/Question: Distinguish between positive and negative corporate politics and explain how these can influence employment engagement. Using case studies, discuss how people within an organisation can use political tactics to survive the corporate political jungle?
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ By Kate Chopin Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ by Kate Chopin describes the thoughts and feelings that are depicted in a single hour of the life of Louise Mallard after hearing that her husband has been killed in a railroad accident. As the story begins we are told that Mrs. Mallard is afflicted with a heart condition so the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death is broken to her gently by her sister. Mrs. MallardÃ¢â¬â¢s initial reaction, upon hearing of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death is one of grief. She wishes to be left alone to grieve in her room upstairs in the house. However, during the hour she spends sitting in an armchair alone in the room, her state of mind changes dramatically. She is faced withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The author also describes the realization of freedom as if it were a tangible thing, there was something coming to her and she was waiting for it. There are also thoughts and ideas that show Mrs. Mallard realizing that love is by no means a substitute for independence. Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ also deals with societal conflicts through their impact on the protagonist. Mrs. Mallard is seen to be unaware of the conflict and resulting oppression, until events occur that force her to see it. She is ultimately defeated by the social conflicts, but the really important point of the story is not winning or losing the struggle, but the change that comes about as a result of the struggle. Feminism and gender literacy perspectives play a major role in Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ . This is evident from the beginning of the story when we do not find our Mrs. MallardÃ¢â¬â¢s first name until after her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. This shows us that she was not important enough to warrant a first name until she was no longer dependent upon her husband. The description of womanÃ¢â¬â¢s repression is evident when Chopin gives us the reason for Mrs. MallardÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"monstrous joyÃ¢â¬ which reads thus. Ã¢â¬Å"There would be now powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature.Ã¢â¬ Women in Victorian times did what they were told by theirShow MoreRelatedThe Story Of An Hour And The Story Of An Hour2009 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWomen are taught from a young age that marriage is the end all be all in happiness, in the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of An HourÃ¢â¬ by Kate Chopin and the drama Ã¢â¬Å"Poof!Ã¢â¬ by Lynn Nottage, we learn that it is not always the case. Mrs. Mallard from Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ and Loureen from Ã¢â¬Å"Poof!Ã¢â¬ are different characteristically, story-wise, and time-wise, but share a similar plight. Two women tied down to men whom they no longer love and a life they no longer feel is theirs. Unlike widows in happy marriagesRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ we are taken through a journey. The journey is the thoughts and emotions going through Mrs. Mallards (Louise) mind. The journey only takes an hour, so everything moves at a fast pace. Louise seemed to process the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death without an i nitial element of disbelief and shock. She goes right into the reaction of grieving for her husband. She quickly begins to feel other emotions. At first she does not understand them. The journey is a way that Louise comesRead MoreStory of an Hour1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Story of an Hour 1. There are many themes in The Story of An Hour; Ã¢â¬Ëheart troubleÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â which describes not only the physical affliction of Mrs Mallard but also the emotional suffering in her marriage. Three other themes that are prominent within this story are; death, freedom and oppression. Though, the themes of freedom and oppression can be seen as the main themes within this story, as we see the character of Mrs Mallard Ã¢â¬â a Mallard is a type of wild duck, which can be seen as being symbolicRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour1414 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesarticle would be bad satire, a bad argument. Chongyue and LihuaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Caricature of an Ungrateful and Unfaithful WifeÃ¢â¬ distorts Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ through imaginative exaggeration of character interaction, emotional ignorance, and its simplification of the characters and the text. Firstly, there is no evidence in the text of Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ to suggest that Louise Mallard has been at all unfaithful to her husband. One sentence within the article suggests that some readers have sensedRead MoreStory of an Hour848 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStory of an Hour Kate Chopin s the Story of an Hour includes a vast amount of literary devices. Irony, foreshadowing, personification, imagery, symbolism, metaphor and repetition are some of the major literary techniques used by Chopin within this short story about a woman named Mrs. Mallard. Although the story covers only one hour in the life of the main character, the use of these various literary techniques present the theme of the story to the reader in a very entertaining manner. TheRead MoreStory of an Hour619 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The story of an hourÃ¢â¬ is a short story written by Kate Chopin. According to Wikipedia, she was born Katherine OÃ¢â¬â¢Flaherty on February 8, 1850, in St. Louis, Missouri. She was an American author of short stories and novels. She is now considered by some to have been a forerunner of feminist authors of the 20th century. Ã¢â¬Å"The story of an hourÃ¢â¬ was written on April 19, 1894 but was originally published in Vogue on December 6, 1894 as Ã¢â¬Å"The Dream of an HourÃ¢â¬ . It was first reprintedRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ is a story that in a few pages creates commentary, emotions, and thoughts about a simple yet very important part of every civilization. It is quite amazing that a short story written over a hundred years ago is still relevant to our society today. Every successful civilization has had some form of marriage, and while this story is to many criticizing the institution of marriage, I believe that people could see this dichotomy of oppressor vs oppressed that this story triesRead MoreThe Story of an Hour1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAyodeji Ilesanmi Ms. Pape English 1302.626 February 23, 2012 Part One: Alternate ending to Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Someone was opening the front door with a latchkey, it was Brently Mallard who entered, a little travel stained, composedly carrying his grip-sack and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of the accident, and did not even know there had been one. He stood amazed at Josephine s piercing cry; at Richards quick motion to screen him from the view of his wifeÃ¢â¬ (Chopin, 16). Read MoreThe Story of an Hour960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn The Story of an Hour, Kate Chopin suggests that in certain scenarios, the death of a loved one may be a blessing in disguise. Possible situations may include an abusive relationship, or an unhappy marriage, as the story suggests. Although the circumstances throughout the story might lead the reader to believe that Louises husbands death would cause her great pain, ironically, when she hears the news, she feels a sense of euphoria. This suggests that death may not always cause agony. LouisesRead MoreA Story Of An Hour1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMost stories have more than one conflict, some bigger than others, but all important as a story progressives to the very moment everything clicks and comes together. After that point, the story starts to wind down, lose ends are tied, and the reader gets the satisfying feeling of a happy ending. The Story of an Hour is not your typical short story; but is similar to others in the way that conflicts are the leading force behind a short story. This story starts with Mrs. Mallard finding out any wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s
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Test Score Gap in Math StageÃ 1: Introduction: Issue The gap between black and white test score is a robust empirical regularity (Fryer Levitt, 2004). This gap remains almost constant even afte re, especially in math is of great importance. This will lead towards formulation of strategies and measures, which are aimed at ensuring that the gap decreases and African Americans will have improved and better scores in math. Math is an essential subject, which influences each and everything that individuals interact with in the modern life. The topic is unique to the district since there has been an education trend of poor performance in math subject. However, it is not clear whether technology based issues that include globalization and social and cultural issues impact schooling abilities or teaching methodologies adopted by teachers in various schools. Hence, focusing on key causes for a decrease in math test score will facilitate in policy formulate and advocacy for the education sector, which is aimed at ensuring the performance level of the math subject improves significantly. According to a study conducted by Coleman et al. (1966) on ethnic differences and how they influence academic performance among children in different schooling stages, it was established that blacks and whites have different academic achievements. These differences are noted in all the stages of grade level and they increase as the student age increases. Since then, much effort has been directed towards comprehension of the variables that account for the gap and why such gap has been increasing. Brooks-Gunn et al. (2000) conducted a study, which led to the attainment of several factors. These were poverty effects and socioeconomic factors, which influenced racial differences in the area of academic performance. However, despite the control of these factors as they emerged, a gap still existed in terms of academic performance of blacks and whites. The gap is also characterized of enlarging with time. According to Cameiro Heckman (2002), the gap between whites and blacks in test score s emerges prior to the entry of children in kindergarten and tends to increase as one advance in higher levels of education. Further, there has not been any successful solution offered on how to reduce this gap. The question that needs to be answered is what is the key cause of the decreased standardized test scores in math for African Americans? Stage 2: Data Collection In section two directions, I focused on the type of data that I need in this research. This resulted in the selection of the three processes to be used in data collection. These are analysis of test scores public data as it is provided in the Virginia government statistics. The key area of focus is Newport News Public School. The other method will involve structuring both open ended and close ended questions, which will be used in a questionnaire. The questionnaire will be presented to sample populations of teachers, parents and students and other stakeholders. Selection of questionnaire is based on the need for current information on views and perspectives on the imminent issue of reduced test scores in math. The final method will entail moving around the school compound to record behavioral practices of students. This will be followed by 10 interviews of 3 math teachers and the other 7 on African American students on different grades. After selection of these three methods, instrum ents were then designed to ensure that data gathering and information documentation occur effectively during the study. Ideas and designed instruments for data gathering were then presented to colleagues who provided a positive feedback on the study being able to attain its key objectives and aim. However, there were some few modifications done on questions to ensure that they were able to elicit a response from the participants. The IRB Ethics Review form was then obtained, signed and submitted to the course instructor. The first instrument is the observation note that answers the following questions: 1. What type of learning behavior is exhibited in this school? 2. How do students relate with their teachers? 3. How is learning conducted in the school? 4. Are there effective relationships between teachers and students? 5. What are the general views of African American students in math? 6. Do the whites and black students interact effectively in the school? The document instrument will be based on secondary data analysis. The document will have the obtained data and analysis of the same by making comparisons and arguments why such data is obtained in the study population. Such data will be obtained from secondary sources and used to analyze the prevailing academic trend of blacks test scores in math. According to Shalash (2012), black students in Virginia had the lowest pass rate of 45 percent compared to white students by 68 percent, Asian students with 82 percent, and Hispanic students with 52 percent. Daniel Curry-Corcoran the accountability executive director in Newport News Public Schools claims that the trend of black student math performance has been declining over time. Presently, the results are worse than the previous years. The same case is obtained in test scores that are used. Test scores data will be obtained from the Virginia Department of Education report card in Newport News City Public Schools from this link (https://p 1pe.doe.virginia.gov/reportcard/report.do?division=117). The third instrument is the questionnaire that will be used in the process of data gathering from the selected population of study. Sample questionnaire to be used is: 1. Sex: I am a: Male1 ( ) Female-2 ( ) 2. What is the highest education level you have completed? 1 year secondary1( ) 2 years secondary2( ) 3 years secondary3( ) 4 years secondary4 ( ) other-6 ( ) Please specify______________________ 3. State your favorite subject and least favorite Favorite Least favorite 4. How do you (did perform) in math? Better-01( ) Good-02( ) Average-03( ) Poor 04( ) Very poor05( ) Other-15( ) Please specify____________ 5. What is your age? __ __ years. 6. How many times have you been sick (i.e., cold, flu etc.) while at school? None0( ) Once1( ) Twice2( ) Three times3( ) Four times4( ) Five times5( ) Six or more times6( ) 7. What meal plan do you use? No meal plan-1( ) 5 meal plan2( ) 10 meal plan-3( ) 12 meal plan-4( ) 14 meal plan-5( ) 19 meal plan-6( ) 8. What was your average in high school? __ __ % 9. What is the highest level of education completed by your parents? FatherÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Mother Elementary-1( )1( ) Grades 7 to 9-2( )2( ) High School3( )3( ) Trade School4( )4( ) Diploma-5( )5( ) University-6( )6( ) Other7( )7( ) Please specify_________ 10. What is (or was) occupation of your father? (e.g., foreman for CNR). Job Position_________________________________________________ Brief Job Description________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 11. What is (or was) occupation of your mother? (e.g., Registered Nurse) Job Position_________________________________________________ Brief Job Description________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 12. Where do you live at Virginia On Campus1( ) Off Campus-2( ) * If living off campus go directly to Question 13 13. What is your residence? Lane-01( ) Fraser08( ) Mt. St. Bernard02( ) MacNeil09( ) T.N.T.03( ) MacDonald10( ) Chillis-04( ) MacPherson11( ) Plessis-05( ) Mockler12( ) MacIsaac06( ) Coady Inst13( ) Burke07( ) 14. Where do you do your studies while you are in school? Library-1( ) Your own room-2( ) Other3( ) Please specify_____________ Please circle a number as an indication of your rating on the following: 15. I like little disturbance while I study. Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strongly Agree 16. When people are in my room I study well. Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strongly Agree 17. My room is quiet. Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strongly Agree 18. What comes first is my school work Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strongly Agree Observation indicator and criteria to note actions and practices will involve first a focus on the learning behavior. This will be observed for all stages of schooling where in each stage at least a day will be spend interacting with the students and teachers in order to obtain more insightful information. Such observation will occur in the school compound of the selected school for this study. This will involve an investigation of how learning is conducted in each of these stages of schooling. Three days will be spent observing the relationship that exists between teachers and students. Such relationships investigation will focus on identifying any differences on how the white and black children relate with their teachers. This will be followed by four days observation and collection of data from students on their general views and perception towards math. This observation will be done among all the students irrespective of them being whites or blacks. Finally, two days will be spen t observing the interaction level between the whites and blacks while in school. This will include interactions while in a classroom setting, as well as interactions while outside. The attitude and attention that African American students offer in their classes will also be observed during this time. Key open ended questions for the interview include: 1) Which are the challenges that are faced by African American students in learning math? 2) What do you think has being the contributing factor towards the reduction of the African American test scores in math? 3) What should be the solution towards the issue of test scores gap between the whites and blacks? 4) What are the common reactions and behavioral attitudes of students towards math? 5) Which are the resources that you think can be added in the education sector in order to facilitate in improvement in test scores of African American students? Documentation of the interview information will involve listing responses of the respondents under each of the interview questions. These responses will then be analyzed through the thematic technique, which enables categorization of responses based on the commonality of the responses. Thus, similar responses will be grouped together and relationships attained from the responses analyzed and illustrated in an effective manner. These interviews will take place in the selected school. As such, the school administration will be informed of the study to take place and a consent agreement signed. This will ensure that the study is able to obtain a room where it will be based for effective data collection. References Brooks-Gunn, J., and G. J. Duncan. (2000). Family Poverty, Welfare Reform and Child Development. Child Development, 71:1, 188Ã¢â¬â196. Carneiro, P., and J. Heckman. (2002). Human Capital Policy. University of Chicago working paper. 1 (1). Coleman, J., E. Campbell, C. Hobson, J. McPartland, A. Mood, F. D. Weinfeld, and P. York. (1966). Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Fryer, R, Levitt, S. (2004). Understanding the black-white test score gap in the first two years of school. The review of economics and statistics, Vol, 34, No. 2. Shalash, S. (2012). Virginia adopts new method to measure students, drops AYP. Retrieved on 11 November 2013 from: http://articles.dailypress.com/2012-08-01/news/dp-nws-state-achievement-goals-20120801_1_white-students-black-students-asian-students